Genotype by environment interaction and stability analyses of grain yield of selected maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes in eastern and central Sudan
In this study, 22 open pollinated maize genotypes introduced from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) plus two local checks (Var113, Hudieba-2) were evaluated over two seasons (2017 and 2018) and four locations, viz. New Halfa, Kassala, Gezira and Elsuki Research Station farms of the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) of the Sudan. The objectives of this study were to determine magnitude of G x E interaction and identify high yielding and stable genotypes under different environments. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Combined analysis of variance revealed highly significant (P<0.01) variation among environment, genotype, and genotype by environment interaction (GEI). This is an indication of inconsistency of genotypes in response to changing environment, the high influence of environment on yield performance among the maize genotypes and, also, the significant effect of environments indicated that the testing environments were significantly different from each other in yielding potential expression. AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield showed the environment contribution by (24.06%) of the total yield variation and genotypes explained only (9.84%) of the variation. Also, substantial percentage of G x E interaction sum of squares, explained by G x E (50.41%) followed by IPCAI (19.22%) and IPCA2 (15.52%) of the variation. Based on grain yield potential and statistical stability analyses, i.e. Eberhart and Russel model (1966) as well as the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis, revealed that, the genotypes TZBR Eld-4-WC1, BR9922-DMRSR,TZBR Comp1-w, TZBR Comp1-Y and TZBR YPOP STRCY were recommended for the high yielding favourable supplementary irrigation condition (over 3000 kg/ha) of New Halfa, Gezira and Elsuki while the genotypes TZBREld-3C5, TZBREld-4-WC1, HYDERAB, 97502 (RE) and ECA STRIGOFE-153 were recommended for the unfavourable low yielding (less than 1500 kg/ha) rainfed condition of Kassala.
Alberts, M.J.A. 2004. A comparison of Statistical Methods to Describe Genotype x Environment Interaction and Yield Stability in Multi-location Maize Trials. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Plant Sciences, University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
Asnake, W., M. Henry, Z. Temesgen and T. Girma. 2013. Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions model (AMMI) and genotype main effect and genotype by environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis of multi-environmental wheat variety trials. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8(12):1033-1040.
CIMMYT. 1989. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. Maize Research and Development in Pakistan. ARC/CIMMYT Collaborative Programs, Pakistan.
Cooper, M. and D.E. Byth. 1996. Understanding plant adaptation to achieve systematic applied cop improvement: A fundamental challenge. In: M. Coopr and G.L. Hammer (eds.). Plant Adaptation and Crop Improvement. CAB International and International Rice Research Institute, UK. Pp. 5-23.
Crossa, J. 1990. Statistical analysis of multiplication trials.Advances in Agronomy44:55-85.
DACNET. 2014. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, DAC, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi.
Dowswell, C. R., R.L. Paliwal and R.P. Cantrell.1996. Maize in the Third World. West View Press, Inc., Colorado, USA.
Eberhart, S.A. and W.A. Russel. 1966. Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Science 6:36-40.
Golam, F., N. Farhana, N. Zain, M.F. Majid, N.Z. Rahman and M.A. Kadir. 2011. Grain yield and associated traits of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes in Malaysian Tropical Environment. African Journal of Agricultural Research 16(1): 123-126.
Heisey, P.W. and G.O. Edmeades. 1999. Maize Production in Drought Stressed Environments: Technical Options and Research Resource Allocation. CIMMYT 1997/98 World Maize Facts and Trends. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.
Hill, J., H.C. Becker and P.M.A. Tigerstedt. 1998. Quantitative and Ecological Aspects of Plant Breeding. Chapman and Hall. London.
Mohammed, I.M. and H.A. Tambal. 2012. A proposal for the release of two Egyptian maize hybrids for the irrigated sector in Northern and Central Sudan, submitted to the Variety Release Committee, Khartoum, Sudan (July, 2012).
Pingali, P.L. and S. Pandey. 2001. Meeting World Maize Needs: Technoglical Opportunties and Priorties for Public Sector. CIMMYT 1999/2000 World Maize Fact and Trends, CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.
Thimothy, D.H., P.H. Harvey and C.R. Dowswell. 1988. Development and Spread of Improved Maize Varieties and Hybrids in Developing Countries. Bureau for Science and Technology, Washington, D. C.
Troyer, A.F. 2006. Adaptedness and heterosis in corn and mule hybrids. Crop Science 46: 528-548.
Vargas, M., J. Crossa, F.A.V. Eeuwijk, M.E., Ramirez and K. Sayre. 1999. Using AMMI, factorial regression, partial least squares regression model for interpreting genotype x environment interaction. Crop Science 39: 955-967.