Influence of drought stress on seed yield and yield components of nine common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes

Gamal E.Khalifa1, Ali E. Eljack, Elsadig S. Mohamed

Abstract


 

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Common bean is an important food legume crop in Sudan. Drought is one of the most important factors responsible for low productivity, which necessitates breeding for its tolerance. The objective of the study was to identify the most tolerant lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to limited moisture. Nine common bean genotypes of different seed sizes (small, medium and large) and origins were tested under two watering intervals; 10 (W1) and 20 (W2) days. The material was grown at the end of October during 2003/04 and 2005/06 seasons at Hudeiba Research Station Farm. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with three replications. Data were collected on number of pods/plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 –seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg/ha). Results showed that water regime treatments significantly affected the reproductive traits of common bean genotypes. The average seed yield and yield components of all genotypes were significantly reduced when bean genotypes were subjected to water stress (W2). Percent reduction in seed yields ranged between 37.3% and 49.8 %. Relatively high ratio of yield under drought to yield under normal conditions (Yd/Yw) was obtained with the medium seeded genotypes and the small ones. Under drought conditions, all genotypes gave drought stress susceptibility index (SSI) below average. The lowest values of SSI (0.64) and (0.65) were given by COWU-3-94-9 and Bellenber-1, respectively, and the higher values of (0.73) and (0.85) were obtained by Basabeer and S/Hashim/98 for the two seasons, respectively. These results indicate that seed size of common bean can determine the response of the genotypes to drought stress. The highest geometric mean of productivity (GMP) of 1591kg/ha was obtained by the genotype Giza 3. The genotypes Basabeer and Giza3 are adapted to favorable conditions; however, Ibarya and S/Hashim/98 are the most tolerant genotypes under drought conditions and can be used in breeding programs.

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