Mango floral malformation in Kordofan, Sudan: Disease incidence and isolation of the causal agent

Hatim G. Mardi, Omer A.A. Sidahmed, Dawoud H. Dawoud

Abstract


Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a unique species with respect to growth, nature and peculiar characteristics. In Sudan, area and production were 16238 ha and 651000 tons, respectively (MOAF, 2008). Like other crops, it is affected by many physiological and pathological stresses. Malformation disease of mango (MDM) was first reported in India in 1891 (Ploetz, 2001). It was also reported in Israel, Malaysia, Pakistan, Egypt, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland and Uganda and the Americas (Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, the United States, and Venezuela) (Marasas et al., 2006).

Mango malformation was first reported in Sudan in 1971 and was known as malformation of terminal bud growth in mango. This was expressed in the failure of the terminal bud of the affected shoot to grow normally and instead produced multiple shoots with very short internodes and rudimentary leaves (Abbadi and Minessy, 1971). Mango malformation causes inflorescences to shorten, thicken and branch. It reduces flower number and size, increases the number of male flowers, and causes sterility or abortion in the remaining hermaphroditic flowers. Leaves may also develop within the inflorescence (Phyllody) (Marasas et al., 2006). Vegetative malformation also occurs, particularly in young trees in nurseries. Shoots from apical and axillary buds are mishapen and have shortened internodes with dwarf and narrow leaves. As malformed inflorescence fails to produce fruits, yield losses may vary from 50 to 80% and in severe cases the loss may be almost total (Summanwar, 1967). The economic losses in Pakistan vary between 5 to 86% (Srivastava, 1998). Several fungi are associated with MDM, all of which are in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (i.e., F. subglutinans sensu lato) (Marasas et al., 2006). Recent  literature reveals the association of the fungus


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