Heterosis for seed yield and its components in sesame under supplementary irrigation

Mohamed Y. Hassan, Abu Elhassan S. Ibrahim, Eltahir S. Ali, Gamal A. Gamos

Abstract


Experiments were carried out during autumn in 2009 at two irrigated locations (Abu Naama and Sinnar) on clay plains of central Sudan. Fourteen sesame genotypes were crossed in line x tester mating scheme and heterosis over mid parent was estimated for the seed yield and its components in 49 F1top cross hybrids. The crosses and their parents were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The traits measured were days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, 1000-seed weight and seed yield. Among the crosses evaluated across the two locations: T3 x L3 and T1 x L5 combined high heterosis for early maturity with high seed yield. This indicates that the crosses were earlier and high yielders than their parents and could be utilized to develop genotype (s) suitable for locations in central Sudan, that is, characterized by varying and low total rainfall. The top four ranking crosses for seed yield across locations were T6 x L3 (1108 kg/ha), T6 x L7 (1023 kg/ha), T1 x L5 (1022 kg/ha) and T5 x L5 (1014 kg/ha). The highest percentage of mid parent heterosis for seed yield across sites were given by T3 x L3 (52%) followed by T3 x L7 (44%), T5 x L7 (44%) and T1 x L5 (43%). These crosses can be used to develop high yielding sesame hybrids through hand emasculation and pollination for further testing in multilocations trials.


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