Effect of plant spacing and pruning on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of introduced mango cultivars

Tawhida B.M. Ahmed, Mohamed E. Elkashif, Osman M. Elamin

Abstract


Kitchener is the most extensively cultivated mango cultivar in the Sudan. However, this cultivar is not popular in export markets due to its high fiber content. Hence, internationally popular mango cultivars have been recently introduced to the Sudan from South Africa. They  include Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, Haden and Sensation. An experiment was conducted in Kamleen nursery, Gezira State, Sudan, during June 2008 to May 2011, to investigate the effects of plant spacing and pruning on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of these introduced mango cultivars compared to the local cultivar, Abusamaka . The trees were planted at a spacing of 5x5m and 10x10 m and subjected to three types of pruning, namely, pruning to two branches, three branches, tip pruning and control. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three replicates. Plant spacing was assigned to the main plots and pruning treatments to the sub-plots. Results showed that the wider spacing resulted in significantly larger canopy diameter and larger number of fruits per tree than the closer spacing in all cultivars and seasons. However, the closer spacing resulted in significantly larger number of fruits/ha and  higher total yield/ha than the wider spacing due to the larger number of trees/ha. Pruning of mango trees to three main branches resulted in significantly the highest yield components and total yield, followed by two branches, tipping and the lowest yield components were produced by the un-pruned control. The introduced mango cultivars had significantly more vigorous vegetative growth, earlier in flowering, higher yield components and total yield and better fruit quality than the local cultivar Abusamaka. It could be concluded that the introduced cultivars Tommy Atkins, Kent and Keitt are promising cultivars to be grown in the Sudan using the high density planting system and pruned annually for high production of good

quality fruit.


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