Assessment of Sudanese sunflower hybrids for yield, yield components and stability

Mohamed Y. Mohamed, Ibrahim N. Elzein, Mohamed E. Ahmed, Abu Elhassan S. Ibrahim

Abstract


Development of local sunflower hybrids with superior yields and stable across different environments is the main objective in our breeding program. For this purpose, ten local Sudanese sunflower hybrids designated as SFH32, SFH36, SFH37, SFH310, SFH313, SFH314, SFH341, SFH345, SFH302, and SFH325 were evaluated against Hysun-33 for yield potential and its components at Sennar, Wad Medani, Rahad, New Halfa and Suki. The experiment over all irrigated environments was laid out in RCBD with three replicates during the winter season of 2008. There was considerable variation for yield and its components among hybrids and locations. Genotype-environment interactions through different parameters and the performance of six traits of hybrids were studied. The six traits were plant height (cm), number of seeds per head, percentage of empty seeds,    100-seed weight (g),seed yield (kg ha-1) and oil yield (kg ha-1).Significant differences were observed for hybrids (G), locations (E) and G xE interaction for these six traits. Stability analysis after Eberhart and Russell’s model suggested that the hybrids used in this study were all, more or less, responsive to environmental changes. Most of the hybrids performed better in E4 (New Halfa). Stability analysis identified SFH37 and SFH310 as stable hybrids for plant height, SFH345 and SFH302 were identified as stable for number of seeds per head, whereas, Hysun-33, SFH310 and SFH341 were found stable for low percentage of empty seeds and heavy seed weight, respectively. Three hybrids; SFH310, SFH313 and SFH341 performed better than Hysun-33 and other hybrids across five environments and were considered as most stable hybrids for seed and oil yields. In contrast, hybrids such as SFH32 and SFH37 with regression coefficients greater than one were regarded as sensitive to environmental changes for seed and oil yields. The hybrid SFH310 was identified as stable hybrid for various yield components. The three promising local hybrids were released in June 2009 for commercial production and the local seed production of the hybrid SFH310 (Bohooth-1) was adopted by some seed producers in the country.


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