Effects of application methods and dose rates of carbofuran on the control of maize infesting stemborers and consequences on agronomic, yield and yield parameters in central Sudan

Tag Elsir E. Abdalla, Mahadi M. Zein, Abdelrahman A. Mohamed, Ismail S. Omer

Abstract


This study was conducted at Gezira (GRS) and Sennar Research Stations (SRS) farms during 2014/2015 winter season. Carbofuran was tested in form of "Carbodan 10 G®". The application methods were: Soil dressing method (SDM) applied with the seeds at sowing, top dressing method (TDM) applied into whorls after emergence, and broadcasting method (BM) applied after emergence. The doses were 0.225, 0.3 and 0.375g /hole in SDM and 5.85, 7.8 and 9.75kg/fed in each of TDM and BM. Untreated control (UC) was included in the test. Stemborers damage was assessed on maize leaves and stems. Agronomic, yield and yield parameters were timely recorded. Residue analysis was performed in grains taken at milky and maturity stages. The ordered SDM, TDM and BM showed decreasing trend of dead heart by scoring 6.1%, 5.7%, and 5.5% at GRS, and 7.3%, 4.6% and 3.1% at SRS, respectively, but didn’t differ much by effects on leaves. An increasing trend in number of cobs /fed was also evident. All carbofuran treatments reduced percentage of infested plants to a range of 12.6%-16.8% vs. 22.4% in the UC at GRS, and 5.2%-15.5% vs. 30.5% in the UC at SRS. SDM at 0.375g/hole, TDM at 7.8 kg /fed and BM at 9.75 kg /fed recorded significantly lower percentage of dead heart, 3.7%, 3.8% and 3.6%, vs. 14.0% in the UC at GRS, and 9.3%, 2.4% and 4.5% vs. 20.1% in the UC at SRS, respectively. They increased plant stand, plant height, number of cobs /fed, 1000-grain weight and grain yield by 32%-105% over the UC at GRS and 46%-175% at SRS. TDM at 7.8 kg /fed produced 2.2 ton /fed which was about three times as much vs. UC (0.8 ton /fed) at SRS (P≤0.05). No residue of carbofuran and its metabolites were detected in all grain samples.


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