The Gezira Journal of Economic and Social Sciences is a refereed biannual journal issued by the Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Gezira, Sudan. It was established in 2008 and is concerned with publishing original, innovative and inventive scientific research in all fields of economic and social sciences. Manuscripts submission can be electronic, by Email or paper. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic photocopying, and recording or otherwise without permission in writing from the editor.