Chloroquine Can No Longer be Considered as First Line of Treatment of P.falciparum malaria in Gezira State, Sudan.
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium family which transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito. Chloroquine resistant malaria is alarming severe health problem worldwide. The use of in vivo, in vitro and molecular markers in surveying chloroquine resistance may constitute as an important tool to overcome this problem. The aim of this study is to assess the chloroquine resistance of P. falciparum in central Sudan using in vivo and in vitro assays.
Sixty-four (64) patients affected with P. falciparum were selected. Follow-up for fourteen days was used. Only forty patients completed the follow-up.
The in vitro assay showed that 32/40 (80%) of the P. falciparum isolates were resistant to Chloroquine and 10/40 (20%) isolates were sensitive to chloroquine regimen.
The in vivo study showed that 22/40 (54%) were found to be very well responded with adequate clinical response, however, 18/40 (46%) were being resistant with 9/40 (23%) having early treatment failure (ETF) and 9/40 (23%) having late treatment failure (LTF). All the treatment failures were treated with Artemether or Quinine.
The study concluded that chloroquine could no longer be considered as the first defense line of treating the P. falciparum malaria parasite in central Sudan.
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