Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science is a refereed scientific journal issued bi-annually by Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Gezira and established in 2003. It aims at publishing articles, critiques and scientific and technical findings in all fields of agriculture. Articles will be accepted either in Arabic or English. Manuscripts submission can be electronic, by Email or paper. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic photocopying, and recording or otherwise without permission in writing from the editor.