The Gezira Journal of Health Sciences is a Journal of all health care professions. It is a peer reviewed journal issued bi-annually and was established in 2002. It publishes articles on all health contents and concerns; basic sciences, clinical sciences, medical education, behavioural sciences and community health. The journal will have more emphasis on articles addressing community health problems. While the journal publishes all biomedical articles it will have emphasis on articles that focus on health problems in Sudan, Africa and the Arab World. It will publish original articles, reviews, case reports, letters to the editor, commentaries and surgical techniques. The journal will publish summaries of the academic activities of all health faculties in Gezira University. Articles will be accepted either in Arabic or English. Arabic terminology should be standardized according to the United Arabic Medical Dictionary. manuscript submission can be electronic, by Email or paper. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic photocopying, and recording or otherwise without permission in writing from the editor.