Acute toxicity of saponins from the fruit of bitter apple Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad,on the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout)

  • Ehab Alias 1Department of Pesticides and Toxicology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University ofGezira, Wad Medani, Sudan
  • Mohamed Zeinelabdin 2Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan
  • Nabil Bashir Blue Nile Institute for Communicable Diseases, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan.
  • Yousif Assad 1Department of Pesticides and Toxicology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University ofGezira, Wad Medani, Sudan

Abstract

   Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (CCT) is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a well-recognized plant in the traditional medicine and used in rural areas as a purgative, ant diabetic and insecticide. The objective of this study was to evaluate saponins acute toxicity. Crude saponins were extracted from the rind andtheir acute toxicity was determined on Norway rat Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout). Five dosage levels (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 mgs saponins/rat) were selected following a pilot study and administered intraperitoneally (I.P.) to each batch of albino rats (4 rats/ batch). The treated rats were observed for 96 hr for acute toxicity symptoms. Death occurred between 1–4 days post- treatment. The corrected mortalities were 0, 25,50,75 and 100%, respectively. The LC50 was 79.43 mg / rat. Symptoms and behavioural changes during the observation period were anorexia, abnormal gait, twitches, blepharoptosis, reduced activity and bleeding. Severe diarrhoea was the most serious symptom.The study has identified CCT, viz. its saponins content, as a promising plant with acute and broad rodenticidal activity.


    الحنظل Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad من النباتات الطبية المهمة المنتمية للعائلة القرعية، وهو معروف في الطب الشعبي في الأرياف بوصفه مادة مسهلة وفي علاج داء السكري ومبيداً حشرياً. هدفت هذه الدراسة إلي  تقويم سمية صابوينات ثمار هذا النبات. تم اختبار السمية الحادة للصابونينات المستخلصة من قشور ثمار نبات الحنظل عليطريق الحقن عبر الغشاء البريتوني للجرذان النرويجية البهقاء Berkenhout)) Rattu norvegicus. بناءً على تجارب أولية تم اختبار خمس جرعات وهى 60 ، 70، 80، 90 و 100 مجم صابونين خام / جرذ .خضعت الجرذان المعاملة والشاهد للملاحظة لمدة (96) ساعة لتحديد علامات (أعراض) السمية الحادة للمستخلص ماتت الجرذان خلال 1– 4 أيام  من المعاملة. وكانت النسبة المئوية المصححة للموت كالآتي: صفر، 25، 50 ،         75 و100 للجرعات المذكورة أعلاه بالترتيب. التركيز القاتل النصفي  LC50 عن طريق تحليل الاحتمالات (البروبيت) كان حوالي 43 .79مجم /جرذ. تمثلت علامات السمية الحادة في الفقدان الكامل للشهية ، الارتجاف ، صعوبة التنفس ، عدم المقدرة علي الوقوف ، انسدال جفون العين مع بعض الإفرازات ، النزيف وأخطرها كان الإسهال الحاد ثم  الانهيار التام والموت. اثبتت هذه الدراسة أن الحنظل ممثلاً في الصابونينات المستخلصة منه نباتاً واعدا يمكن استخدامه في مكافحة القوارض.


 

References

Al-Faraj,S. 1995.Haemorrhagic colitis induced by Citrullus colocynthis. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology89 (6):695-696.
Alias, E. E. M. 2004. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Bitter Apple Citrullus colocynthis(L.) Schrad, on Albino Laboratory Rats Rattus norvigicus. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Sudan.
Barri, M.E. 1983. Toxicity of five Sudanese plants to young ruminants. Journal of Comparative Pathology4:559-75.
Batanouny, K. H. 1999. Wild Medicinal Plants in Egypt, an Inventory to Support Conservation and Sustainable Use. Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt. International Union of Conservation (IUCN).pp613
Diwan, F. H.,I. A. Abdel-Hassan, and S. T. Mohamed.2000. Effect of saponin on mortality and histopathological changes in mice. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 6(2-3): 345-351.
Elawad, A.A., E.M. Abdel Bari, O.M. Mahmoud and S.E. Adam. 1984. The effect of Citrullus colocynthis on sheep. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 26(6):481-485.
Feroz, M. R.,S. T.Ahmed, A. K .Sindhu and A. M. Shabaz. 1993. Antifungal activities of saponins from indigenous plants of roots. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 13:4.22.
Finney, D. J. 1980. ProbitAnalysis. Cambridge University Press, 33 p.
Goldfain, D, A. Lavergne, A. Galian, L. Chauveinc and F. Prudhomme. 1989. Peculiar acute toxic colitis after ingestion of colocynth: Aclinicopathological study of three cases. Gut30(10):1412–1418.
Otsuka, H,Y. Morita, Y. Ogihara and S. Shibata.1997. The evaluation of ginseng and its congeners by droplet counter current chromatography (DCC) PlantaMedica 32: 9-17.
Rand, M. S. 2001. Handling, Restraints, and Techniques of Laboratory Rodents. Department of Animal Care, University of Arizona U.S.A. pp71 Robertson Publishers, London.
Wasfi, I.A. 1994. Some pharmacological studies on Citrullus colocynthis. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medical Plants 2:65-79.
Published
2015-01-01
How to Cite
ALIAS, Ehab et al. Acute toxicity of saponins from the fruit of bitter apple Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad,on the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout). Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 1, jan. 2015. ISSN 1728-9556. Available at: <http://journals.uofg.edu.sd/index.php/gjas/article/view/1105>. Date accessed: 11 dec. 2018.
Section
Articles