Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) yield under rainfed and irrigation conditions in central Sudan

Mohammed H. Mohammed, Abu Elhassan S. Ibrahim, Ibrahim N.Elzein

Abstract


An experiment was conducted over three consecutive seasons (2009, 2010, and 2011) at three locations , Rahad Research farm. Gedarif  Research Station farm (North Gedarif and South Gedarif region) of the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), Sudan. Both North and South Gedarif were rainfed, while Rahad station was irrigated. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was used. Sorghum production is highly influenced by the environment where it is grown, thus, the genotype by environment interaction is highly significant when breeding for specific adaptation. The objective was   to assess the genotype x environment interaction and stability of grain yield. The mean squares due to environment, genotypes and genotype x environment interaction were highly significant for grain yield. Significant differences among  genotypes for the studied characters were found in almost all seasons, indicating that these sorghum genotypes were highly variable for the characters studied and , therefore, expected to respond to selection. The interaction effects of genotype x location were highly significant for most traits indicating that genotypes responded differently to different environments and some are environmentally specific. The present study showed that the first two axes PCA1,PCA2 in Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI ) accounted for the GE sum of squares by 56.7% and 19.3%, respectively, while the regression analysis accounted for GE sum of squares by 21.9% .Hence, AMMI analysis was superior to regression techniques and more effective in partitioning the interaction sum of squares. From both statistical  stability models used in this study, i.e. Eberhart and Russell (1966) as well as the Aditive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis, they pointed out  that genotypes Mugod (1510 kg/ha), Tabat (1299 kg/ha), Wad-Ahmed (1471 kg/ha), Gadambalia bloom (1428 kg/ha), Safra (1410 kg/ha) and Tetron (1323) were high yielding and stable under the favorable environments of South Gedarif and Rahad irrigated Scheme. Genotypes Wad Baku(1225 kg/ha), Farhoda (1252 kg/ha),Gesheish (1194 kg/ha) and Wad Fahal (1230 kg/ha) were low yielders but quite stable under low rainfall environments like North Gedarif environment.


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