Insight to the Role of Basic School Teachers in the Care of Diabetic Children, Omdurman Locality -2017
Children with diabetes spend up to 8 hours a day in school, during which they require blood glucose monitoring, insulin administration and facilities to treat low blood glucose during the school day. The main objective of this study was to assess the role of basic school teachers regarding the care of diabetic children in the Omdurman locality.
This is a cross-sectional school based study in the Omdurman locality, 50 schools out of 169 were selected, and 371 teachers were included in the study from total number of 1658 teachers, using a multistage sampling. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection.
In this study, most of the participants were female teachers (70.4%) and aged between 30 and 60 years (77.9%); most of them were university graduates (76.5%) and they had average knowledge scores regarding DM (59.3%). The majority of the teachers knew the symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia (72.8%), but only (28%) of them had knowledge about symptoms and signs of hyperglycemia, with (54.4%) opting not to intervene and stabilize diabetic students in diabetic emergencies. Most of the schools have no qualified person(s) or clinic(s) to deal with a diabetic child (71.4%), (93%) of the teachers didn’t receive any specific training regarding the care of a diabetic child during school days, but teachers were willing to have relevant training and education (87.1%).
The knowledge about diabetes among school teachers in the Omdurman area was average, despite the lack of training programs. Moreover, regarding the current situation, most schools have no health personnel to deal with a diabetic student at school, collaboration between the Ministry of Health and Education is needed to increase awareness and education levels of school teachers regarding the care of a diabetic student is a must, in addition to the establishment school health clinics.
2. Diamond Project Group. Incidence and trends of childhood type 1
diabetes worldwide 1990-1999. Diabet Med 2006;23:857-66.
3. Patterson CC, Dahlquist GD, Gyürüs E, et al. The EURODIAB study
group. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe during
1989-2003 and predicted new cases 2005-20: a multicenter prospective
registration study. Lancet 2009; 373(1):2027-33.
4. Akesen E, Turan S, Güran T, Atay Z, Save D, Bereket A. Prevalence of
type 1 diabetes mellitus in 6–18‐yr‐old school children living in Istanbul,
Turkey. Pediatric diabetes. 2011 Sep 1; 12(6):567-71.
5. Rosenbloom AL, Silverstein JH, Amemiya S, Zeitler P, Maahs DM,
Klingensmith GJ. Type 2 Diabetes. Global IDF/ISPAD Guideline for
Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence, 2011; 13(6):5-7.
6. Ogurtsova K, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Huang Y, Linnenkamp U, Guariguata L, Cho NH, Cavan D, Shaw JE, Makaroff LE. IDF Diabetes Atlas. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2017 Jun;128:40-50.
7. Alberti G, Zimmet P, Shaw J, et al. Type 2 diabetes in the young: the
evolving epidemic: the International Diabetes Federation consensus
workshop. Diabetes Care 2004; (2) 27:1798-811.
8. Copeland K, Silverstein J, Moore K, et al. Management of newly
diagnosed T2DM in children and adolescents. Am AcadPediatr
9. Rosenbloom AL, Silverstein JH, Amemiya S, et al. ISPAD clinical
practice consensus guidelines 2009 compendium. Type 2 diabetes in
children and adolescents. PediatrDiab 2009;(2)10:17-32.
10. Rosenbloom AL, Joe JR, Young RS, Winter TE. Emerging epidemic of
type 2 diabetes in youth. Diabetes Care 1999;22:345-54.
11. Urrutia-Rojas X, Menchaca J. Prevalence of risk for type 2 diabetes in school children. J Sch Health. 2006 May; 76(5):189-94.
12. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care in the School and Day Care Setting. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S70-S74.
13. Hellems MA, Clarke WL. Safe at school: a Virginia experience. Diabetes
Care 2007;(1), 396-8.
14. Kelo M, Martikainen M, Eriksson E. Self-care of school-age children
with diabetes: an integrative review. J AdvNurs 2011(1);67:2096-108.
15. Lehmkuhl H, Nabors L. Children with diabetes: satisfaction with school support, illness perceptions and HbA1c levels. J DevPhysDisabil 2008(12);20:101-14.
16. Nabors L, Troillett A, Nash T, Masiulis B. School nurse perceptions of
barriers and supports for children with diabetes. J School Health
17. .Silverstein J, Jackson C, Bobo N, et al. providing a safe environment for
students with diabetes. Am J Health Educ 2009; (11) 40:271-5
18. Tolbert R. et al. Managing type 1 diabetes at school: an integrative review. J
School Nurs 2009;25:55-61.
19. Wang YL, Brown SA, Horner SD. School-based lived experiences of
adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a preliminary study. J School Nurs
20. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care in the School and Day Care Setting. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S70-S74.
21. International Diabetes Federation. IDF position statement: the rights of
the child with diabetes in the school. Brussels; IDF; 2005; (2)10:58-60.
22. Pansier B, Schulz PJ. School-Based Diabetes Interventions and Their Outcomes: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Public Health Research. 2015;4(1):467.
23. Warren-Boulton E. Gallivan J, Greenberg R, Brown C. The National Diabetes Education Program Preventing Chronic Disease. 2008;5(4):A134.
24. Fisher KL. School nurses' perceptions of self-efficacy in providing diabetes care. J SchNurs. 2006 Aug;22(4):223-8
25. Amillategui B, Calle JR, Alvarez MA, et al. Identifying the special needs of children with type 1 diabetes in the school setting. An overview
of parents’ perceptions. Diabet Med 2007; 24:1073-9.
26. Jacquez F, Stout S, Alvarez-Salvat R, et al. Parent perspectives of
diabetes management in schools. Diabetes Educ 2008; 34:996-1003.
27. Kiberenge MW, Ndegwa ZM, Njenga EW, Muchemi EW. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to diabetes among community members in four provinces in Kenya: a cross-sectional study. Pan Afr Med J. 2010;7: 45-9
28. Aycan Z, Önder A, Çetinkaya S, et al. Assessment of the Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus Among School Teachers within the Scope of the Managing Diabetes at School Program. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2012;4(4):199-203.
29. Bradbury AJ, Smith CS. An assessment of the diabetic knowledge of school teachers. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1983;58(9):692-696.
30. 30.Duraywish A A, Abdelsalam M Nail, Assessment of the Primary and
Intermediate School Staffs’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Care of
Children with Type 1 Diabetes at School, Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia , Sudan JMS ,2017 Mar;12 (1) :33-45.
31. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The Effect
of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes on the Development and Progression
of Long-term Complications in Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Retina. 1994 Jan 1;14(3):286-7