Assessment of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium Levels among Sudanese Children with Malnutrition Ibrahim Malik Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan
Background: Malnutrition is currently the most widespread and serious health problem of children in the world.
Objective: This study aimed to assess calcium, phosphate and magnesium levels among Sudanese Children with Malnutrition.
Materials and Methods:This is a hospital based case control study, which was conducted in the period from 2014 to 2015.A total of 120 samples were collected (60 patients and 60 apparently healthy individuals served as control.Quantitative method by mindary BS200 was used to estimate calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels in Sudanese children with malnutrition and control group. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.
Results: The results showed that 31 (52%) of patients were males and 29 (48%) were females. Thirty seven 37(62%) of malnourished children had Marasmus, 15(25%) of them had Kwash and 8(13%) had marasmic kwash. Forty four 44(73%) of the malnourished children were less than 12 month while 16(27%) were more than 12 month.Mean of BMI, calcium, phosphate and magnesium in patients and control groups when compared showed a significantly decreased in malnourished children as BMI (12.25±0.91 versus 14.71±0.76) calcium (5.59±0.98 versus 9.19±0.62) phosphorus (2.81±0.45 versus 5.26±2.3) magnesium (1.01±0.24 versus 1.91±0.18) P-values 0.006, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.000 respectively. Plasma calcium and magnesium levels in males did not reveal significant change versus female group whereas phosphate element significantly decreased among females, p.value 0.038. There was positive correlation between BMI,Calcium and Phosphorous levels (R=0.269, P=0.038 and (R=0.258, P=0.044) while there was no correlation between BMI and magnesium level (R=0.074, P=0.572).
Conclusion: This study concluded that, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium levels were reduced in malnutrition children patients, and phosphate element decreased among female group rather than male.
2. Nassar, M.F., Dina, A .A.,Salwa , R.E and Soad ,M.G. Markersof bone metabolism in Protein Energy Malnutrition. Intern J FoodNutrPublicHealth(2010).; 3:59-70
3. Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Mathers C, Rivera J: Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 2008, 371(9608):243–260.
4. Rayhan I, Khan SH: Factors causing malnutrition among under five children in Bangladesh, Asian Network for Scientific Information. Pak J Nutr 2006, 5(6):558–562.
5. Rosalind SG, Yewelsew A, Hambidge KM, Isabel A, Aklilu T, Barbara JS: Inadequate feeding practices and impaired growth among children from subsistence farming households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Matern Child Nutr 2009, 5:260–275.
6. Chandra RK: Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin
7. Nutr 1997, 66:460S–463S.
8. Girma W, Genebo T: Determinants of Nutritional Status of Women and Children in Ethiopia. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro; 2002:38–143.
9. Grimble RF: Malnutrition and the immune response 2. Impact of nutrients on cytokine biology in infection. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994, 88:615–619.
10. BemnetAmare, BeyeneMoges, BereketFantahun, KetemaTafess, DesalegnWoldeyohannes, GizachewYismaw, et al. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia. Nutrition Journal 2012;11(108):1-8.
11. Ake-Tano O, Ekou FK, Tetchi EO, Koffi KB, Oussou KR, Kpebo DOD, CoulibalyTiembre I et Koffi K (2011). Détermination de la malnutrition chez les enfants de moins de 5 anssuivis à l’institut national de santé publique Côte d’Ivoire. Med. Afri. Noir. 58(2):93-99.
12. Rude RK: Magnesium disorders. In Fluids and Electrolytes.3rd edition.
13. Edited by Kokko JP, Tannen RL. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1996:421–445.
14. Nicolas PolicarpeNolla, Marie Modestine Kana Sop, Mariyne Josephine Mananga, TetanyeAkoe, InocentGouado. (2014) Assessment of nutritional status of preschool children in the Bangang rural community, Cameroon. International Journal of Biotech and food Science;2(2):44-52.
15. Geoffery,B.,Simon,W.,Peter,R and Peter,A. Clinical Biochemistry. 7thedition..(2005). USA:Blackwell Publishing Ltd:72-89.
16. Anne-Louise Hother*, TsinuelGirma, Maren J. H. Rytter, AlemsegedAbdissa, Christian Ritz, Christian Mølgaard,Kim F. Michaelsen, André Briend, HenrikFriis , PernilleKæstel.Serum phosphate and magnesium in children recovering from severe acute undernutrition in Ethiopia: an observational study. BMC Pediatrics (2016) 16:178; 1-9.
17. Angelina OpokuDanquah, *, AdwoaNyantakyiwaa Amoah2, Clara Opare-Obisaw.Nutritional status of upper primary school pupils in a rural setting in Ghana.International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.2013; 2(6): 320-326.
18. FarougBakheit Mohamed Ahmed1, Esam-EddinBakheit Mohamed Ahmed. Malnutrition Among Basic Schools’ Children of Elshagalwa Village, Shendi Locality, Sudan. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences2016; 5(2): 134-138.
19. Jobiba, C., Andrew, T., Theresa, B., Catherine, M.P.F.(2008). The impact of HIV on mortality during in-patient rehabilitation of severely malnourished children in Malawi.Trans R SocTrope Med Hyg; 102: 639-644.
20. Irena, A.H.,Mwambazi, M., Mulenga,V.(Diarrhea is a major killer of children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to inpatient set-up in Lusaka, Zambia. NutrJ, 2011, 10(1):110.
21. Chukwuma, B., Uche, R., Oluoha.,Kelechi, A., Uwakwe1., Kelvin, C., Diwe., Irene, A., Merenu., Ifeadike, O.,Chigozie, A., Anthony, C and Iwu.( Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Malnutrition among Under-Five Children in Rural Communities in Imo State, Nigeria.Amer JPH R; 2015. 3(6):199-206
22. kaneta, k . , Choudhury , M . , Hanifi , S and Abbas , A . gender inequality and severe malnutrition among children in a Remote Rural Area of Bangladesh .J health population, center For Health and population Research; (2000).; 18(3):123-130.
23. Ahmad ,M.S..Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients ,Journal of the College of Physicians and SurgeonsPakistan.2016,26 (5): 394-398.
24. Shazia F, Abbas K, Falak Z, Saleem K, Mahpara S, et al. (2017) Nutritional Status Assessment of Children with Nutritional Rickets Under Five Years at District Headquarter Hospital, Upper Dir- Pakistan. J Nutr Health Sci 4(2): 1-7.
25. Freedman, D., Wang, J., Thornton, J., Mei, Z., Sopher, A and Pierson,R. (Classification of body fatness by Body Mass Index-for-Age among children. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 2009, 163(9), 805-811.