• Elbadri Elamin Osman Faculty of Pure and Applied Biology International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan
  • Abdelmoneim Hassan Mohamed Hilali Department of Science, Teacher's College in Makkah Elmukkaramma, P. O. Box 2064 Saudi Arabia.
  • Waleed Sayed Koko . Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute, National Centre for Research. P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum, Sudan


Schistosomiasis (prevalence, intensity and incidence) and patterns of transmission were studied in two villages lying within the irrigated area around Khartoum State i.e. Kiryab in Seilate Scheme, East Nile Province and Baraka in Gamooeya Scheme, Omdurman Province (1996 - 1998). Both types of infection were recorded in Kiryab village while only the intestinal form, S. mansoni , was found in Baraka village.Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection among people living in Kiryab village were 33.5% and 122.5 eggs/10 ml and those of S. mansoni were 17.6% and 199.6 eggs/g respectively. Prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection were 40.8% and 136.1 eggs/g in Baraka. Incidence rates among schoolchildren were 5.2% and 6.7% for S. haematobium and S. mansoni in Kiryab respectively and 10.9% for S. mansoni in Baraka. The overall prevalence and intensity of both types of schistosomiasis varied between the two villages of the study and in each village these indices of infection varied significantly according to age, reaching a peak in the age group 10 –19 years.Seven different species were found in snail sampling sites in the irrigation canals around the study villages. These snail species were the pulmonates: Biomphalaria pfiefferi, Bulinus truncatus, Lymnea natalensis, Physa acuta and Bulinus forskalii and the prosobranchs: Cleopatra builimoides and Melanoides tuberculata. Pulmonates in general and the schistosome intermediate hosts (i.e. B. pfiefferi and B. truncatus) in particular were observed to vary in distribution and density according to season reaching a peak in the hot season from March to June. Transmission of infection was found to be focal and highly seasonal taking place during summer period from March to June.


Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Stickland, G.T.; El-Sahly, A.; Ahmed, L.;Zakaria, S.; El Kady, N.; and Mahmoud, S (1980). Schistosomiasis mansoni in an Egyptian village in the Nile Delta. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 29, 868-874.
Ahmed, E.S. (1994). Infection, disease and transmission pattern in human Schistosomiasis in the White Nile province, Sudan. M. D. Thesis, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum.
Amin, M.A. and Omer, A.H.S. (1972). Schistosoma haematobium infection, Gorashi milk farm, Khartoum, Sudan. Sudan Medical Journal, 10, 194-201.
Appleton, C.C. (1978). Review of literature on abiotic factors influencing the distribution and life cycles of Bilharziasis intermediate host snails, Malacological review, 11,1-25.
Appleton, C.C. (1977). The influence of temperature on the life- cycle and diostribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Kraus, 1848). in the South-eastern Africa. International Journal of Parasitology, 7, 335-346.
Babiker. M.S.; Blankespoor, H.D.; Wassila, M.; Fenwick, A. and Daffala, A.A. (1985). Transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the north Gezira, Sudan. The Journal ofTropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88, 57-63.
Babiker, A,; Fenwick, A,; and Amin, M. (1984). Location of Biomphalaria pfeifferi by Schistosoma mansoni Miracidia in stagnant and running Water Under Field Conditions, Hydrobiologia, 110, 235-240.
Chandiwana, S.K.; Makaza, D. and Taputaira, A. (1987). Variations in incidence
Of Schistosomiasis in a community of high transmission. Tropical and
Geoghraphical Medicine, 40, 314-317.

Dazo, B.C.; Hairson, N.G. and Dawood, I.K. (1966). The ecology of Bulinus
truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the
control of Bilhaziasis in Egypt 49 project area. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 35, 339-359.

El-Emam, M.A. and Madsen, H. (1982). The effect of temperature, darkness,
starvation and various food types on growth, survival and reproduction
of Helisoma duryi, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus
(Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Hydrobiologia, 88, 265-275.
Elias, E.E., Daffalla, A.A., Lassen, J.M., Madsen, H., Christensen, N.O. (1994).
Schistosoma haematobium infection patterns in the Rahad irrigation scheme, Sudan. Acta Tropica, 58, 115-125.
Elias, E.E. (1992). Transmission of urinary schistosomiasis in the Rahad irrigation scheme, Sudan. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Zoology, Faculty of
Science, University of Khartoum.

El-Tom, I.A.; Sulaiman, M.; Elturabi, H.; Mahgoub, E.; Homeida, M.M. (1993).
Infection with Schistosoma mansoni in two different endemic areas: a comparative population-based study in Elziedab and Gezira-Managil irrigation schemes, Sudan. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 96, 100-106.

Fenwick, A., Cheesmond, A.K., Kardaman, M., Amin, M.A. and Manjing, B.K.
(1982). Schistosomiasis among the labouring communities in the Gezira irrigated area, Sudan. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88, 3-11.
Frandsen, F. and Christensen, N.O. (1984). An introductory guide to the identification of cercariae from African fresh wat snails with special reference to cercariae of trematode species of medical and vertinary importance. Acta Tropica, 41, 181-202.
Hilali, A.H.M.; Gindi, A.M.H.; Babiker, S.M. and Daffalla, A.A. (1996). Snails,
Schistosomiasis and expansion of irrigation around Khartoum state, Sudan. In 'A Status of Research on Medical Malacology in Relation to Schistosomiasis in Africa'. Proceedings from a Workshop held in August 1995, Harare, Zimbabwe. Edited by H. Madsen, T.K. Kristensen and P. Ndlovu. Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory and Blair Research Institute, Charlottenlund, Denmark/ Harare, Zimbabwe, 165-176.
Hilali, A.H.M; Madsen, H.; Daffalla, A.A.; Wassila, M.; Christensen, N.O.
(1995). Infection and transmission pattern of Schistosoma mansoni in
the Managil irrigation scheme , Sudan. Annals of Tropical Medicine
and Parasitology, 89, 279-286.
Karoum, K.O.A. (1988). Trials on biological control of the intermediate hosts of
Schistosomiasis in the Gezira Agricultural Scheme by competitor snail species. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Vetrinary Science, University of Khartoum.

King, C.L.; Miller, F.D.; Hussein, M.; Barakat, R. and Monto, A.S. (1982).
Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection in six
villages of upper Egypt. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and
Hygiene, 31(2), 320-327.

Klumpp, R.K. and Webbe, G. (1987). Focal, seasonal and behavioural patterns of
infection and transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in a farming
village at the Volta lake, Ghana. Journal of Tropical Medicine and
Hygiene, 90, 265-282.
Malek, E.A. (1962). Bilharziasis control in pump schemes near Khartoum, Sudan and evaluation of the efficiency of chemical and mechanical barriers. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 27, 41-58.
McCullough, F.S. and Magendantz, K. (1974). An epidemiological investigation
into Schistosoma mansoni transmission in Mwanza, Tanzania. Annals
of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 68, 69-80.
Mohammed, A.A. (1998). Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection in
Guneid Sugar Cane scheme, Gezira state, Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty
of Science, University of Khartoum.
Mott, K.E. (1982). Control of Schistosomiasis: morbidity reduction and
chemotherapy. Acta Leidensia, 49, 101-111.
Ndamba, J.; Robertson, I.; lemmich, E.; Chandiwana, S.K.; Furu, P. and Molgaard, P. (1994). Investigation of the diurnal, ontogenic and seasonal variation in the molluscicidal saponin content of Phytolacca dodecandra aqueous berry extracts. Phytochemistry, 35, 95-99.
Omer, A.H.S.; Hamilton, P.J.S.,; Marshall, T.F. de . and Draper, C.C. (1976).
Infection with Schistosoma mansoni in the Gezira area of the Sudan. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 79, 151-157.
Teesdale, C.H. and Amin, M.A. (1976). A simple thick smear technique for the
diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. Bulletin of the World Health
Organization, 54, 703-705.
Tecklehaimanot, A. and Fletcher, M. (1990). A parasitological and malacological
survey of Schistosoma mansoni in the Beles Valley, northeastern
Ethiopia. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93, 12-21.
How to Cite
ELAMIN OSMAN, Elbadri; MOHAMED HILALI, Abdelmoneim Hassan; SAYED KOKO, Waleed. INFECTION AND TRANSMISSION PATTERN OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN IRRIGATION SCHEMES AROUND KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN. Gezira Journal of Health Sciences, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, jan. 2005. ISSN 1810-5386. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 june 2019.