Distribution of Snails in Elseilate Agricultural Scheme, Khartoum, Sudan.

  • Dr. Mohamed Khalid Taha Ahmed Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Education, University of Blue Nile


The study was carried out in Elseilate Agricultural Scheme, East Nile Province to determine the distribution of snails in the canals. Surveys were conducted during two seasons i.e. March / April 1997 and September / October 1997 using a dip-net scoop from 28 sites. Seven species of snails were found. These were Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus forskalii, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Lymnaea natalensis, Physa acuta, Melanoides tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides. The following plant species were also found: Spirogyra sp., Potamogeton nodosus., Typha sp., Cyperus sp., Cynadon dactylon., Cymbopogon sp., Cassia senna., Calotropis procera., Acacia nilotica and Prosopis sp. Most snails species showed high densities during March / April when water in canals was clear compared with September / October season when water was turbid due to the flood season of the Blue Nile. This was particularly so for B. pfeifferi and B. truncatus which transmit S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively.  Cleopatra bulimoides had a high density during September / October. Snails were observed in this study to have high densities in minor canals and abueshreens. These canals are characterized generally by low currents, low depth and vegetation densities.

هذه الدراسة نفذت في مشروع السيليت الزراعي ، محلية شرق النيل ولاية الخرطوم لتحديد توزيع الحلزونات في قنوات هذا المشروع. أجريت المسوحات الحلزونية في مارس / أبريل 1997 وسبتمبر / أكتوبر 1997 مستخدمين في ذلك المجرفة. تمت زيارة  28 موقعاً أثناء الفصلين. وجدت سبعة أنواع من الحلزونات في قنوات هذا المشروع هي (Bulinus truncates) بولاينس ترنكاتس Bulinus forskalii), ) بولاينس فورسكالي (  Biomphalaria pfeifferi,) بيومفالاريا فيفراى ( Lymnaea natalensis) ليمنيا نتالينسس,( Physa acuta) فيسا أكيوتا (Melanoides tuberculata,)  ميلانويدز تيوبركيوليتا و( Cleopatra bulimoides) كليوباترا بوليمويدز. أما أنواع النباتات المائية التي وجدت في المشروع كانت كالآتي: Spirogyra sp)) طحلب سبيروجيرا (Potamogeton nodosus) بوتاموجيتون نودوزس ،( Typha sp )  نوع التيفا ، (Cyperus sp ) نوع السيبيروس ، (Cynadon dactylon) سينادون داكتيلون ، (Cymbopogon sp) نوع السيمبوبوجون ، (Cassia senna) السنمكة ، Calotropis procera)) كالوتروبيس بروسيرا العشر  ، (Acacia nilotica)  السنط النيلية ، و( Prosopis sp) نوع بروزوبيس. أغلب أنواع الحلزونات التي وجدت كانت كثافتها عالية في مارس / أبريل عندما كانت الماء في القنوات نظيفة وصافية مقارنة بشهري سبتمبر / أكتوبر عندما يكون المياه في القنوات عكره تزامناً مع موسم فيضان النيل الأزرق. هذه كانت خصوصاً للحلزونات الرئوية (Bulinus truncates) بولاينس ترنكاتس (Biomphalaria pfeifferi), بيومفالاريا فيفراى التي تنقل البلهارسيا المعوية و البولية على التوالي . أما الحلزونات غير الرئوية مثل (Cleopatra bulimoides) كليوباترا بوليمويدز  كانت كثافتها عالية في  سبتمبر / أكتوبر . في هذه الدراسة لوحظ أن كثافة الحلزونات عالية في القنوات الصغيرة (الترع) وأبو عشرين . وهذه القنوات تمتاز عموماً بالتيارات المائية المنخفضة ، العمق المنخفض ، والكثافة العالية في النباتات المائية .


1. Archibald, A. G. (1933). The endemiology and epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the Sudan. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 36: 345-356.
2. Babiker, A.; Fenwick, A.; Daffalla, A. A. and Amin, M. A. (1985). Focality and Seasonality of S. mansoni in the Gezira irrigated area, Sudan. Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 88: 57-63.
3. Babiker, A.; Fenwick, A.; Daffalla, A. A.; Blankspoor, H. D. and Wassila, M. (1985). Transmission of S. Haematobium in North Gezira, Sudan. Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 88: 65-73.
4. Barbosa, F. S. (1973). Possible competitive displacement and evidence of hybridization between two Brazilian species of Planorbid snails. Malacologia, 14: 401-408.
5. Boycott, A. E. (1936). The habits of freshwater molluscan in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 5: 116-186.
6. Brown, D. S.; Fison, T.; Southgate, V. R. and wright, C. A. (1984). Aquatic snails of Gonglei region, Southern Sudan, and transmission trematode parasites. Hydrobiologia, 110: 247 – 271.
7. Cheng, T. C. (1971). In “Aspects of the biology of symbiosis” (T. C. Cheng, Editor). 103 – 137. Butterworth, London.
8. Chu, K. Y.; Arfaa, F, and Massoud, J. (1967). The survival of Bulinus truncatus buried in mud under experimental outdoor conditions. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 61: 6 – 10.
9. Combes, C. (1982). Trematodes: Antagonism between species and sterilizing effects on snails in biological control. Parasitology, 84: 151 – 175.
10. Cowper, F. G. (1971). A synopsis of African Bilharziasis. London, H. K. Lewis Co. Ltd. 72 – 83.
11. Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory (1984). Draft for field guide to North East African fresh water snails. WHO collaborating center for Applied Malacology.
12. Doumenge, J. P.; Mott, K. C.; Cheong, C.; Villerare, D.; Champuis, O.; Perrien, M. F. and Reaud Thomas, G. (1987). Atlas of global distribution of Schistosomiasis. Press university de Brodeaux, Talence.
13. El- Emam, M. A. & Madsen, H. (1982). The effect of temperature, darkness, starvation and various food types on growth, survival and reproduction of Helisoma duryi, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncates. Hydrobiologia, 88, 265- 275.
14. Elias, E. E. (1992). Transmission of urinary schistosomiasis in the Rahad irrigation scheme, Sudan, Ph. D.Thesis, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum.
15. Ferguson, F. F. (1978). The role of biological agents in the control of schistosome – bearing snails. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia.
16. Harrison, A. D. and Shiff. C. J. (1966). Factors influencing the distribution of some species of aquatic snails. South African Journal of Science, 62: 253 -258.
17. Harrison, A. D.; Williams, N. V. and Greig, G. (1970). Studies on the effects of calcium bicarbonate concentration on the biology of B .pfeifferi (Krauss) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Hydrobiologia, 36: 317 – 327.
18. Hilali, A. M. H.; Desougi, L. A.; Wassila, M. Daffalla, A. A. and Fenwick, A. (1985). Snails and aquatic vegetation in Gezira irrigation canals. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88: 75 – 81.
19. Hilali, A. M. H. (1992). Transmission of S. mansoni in the Managil area, Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Zoology Faculty of Science University of Khartoum.
20. Hilali, A. H. M.; Madsen, H.; Daffalla, A. A.; Wassila, M. and Christensen, N. O. (1995). Infection and transmission pattern of S. mansoni in the Managil irrigation scheme, Sudan. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology – 286-
21. Hira, P. R. and Muller, R. (1966). Studies on the ecology of snails transmitting urinary schistosomiasis in Western Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 60: 198 – 211.
22. Jennings, A. C.; De Kock, K. N. and Van Eeden, J. A. (1973). The effect of the total dissolved salt in water on biology of freshwater snails, B. pfeifferi. Wet. Bydraes, P. U. C. H. O. Reeks 8 Natuurwet, No. 50.
23. Jordan, P. & Webbe, G. (1982). Schistosomiasis Epidemiology, treatment and control, William Heineman Medical Books, London pp 16-23. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 31, 490-498.
24. Karoum, K. O. A. (1988). Trials on biological control of intermediate hosts of schistosomes in the Gezira Agricultural Scheme by competitor snail species. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Khartoum.
25. Klumpp, R. K. and Chu, K. Y. (1977). Ecological studies of B. truncatus rohlfsi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake. Bulletin of the WHO, 56: 715 – 730.
26. Madsen, H. (1982). Snail ecology II. Theory and examples. Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlotternlund.
27. Madsen, H. (1992). Inter-specific competition between H. duryi (Wetherby 1879) and intermediate hosts of schistosomes (gastropoda: Planorbidae). An evaluation of biological control of schistosome intermediate hosts by competitor snails. D. Sc. Thesis, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
28. Madsen, H.; Daffalla, A. A.; Karoum, K. O. and Frandsen, F. (1988). Distribution of freshwater snails in irrigation schemes in the Sudan. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25: 853 – 866.
29. Malek, E. A. (1958). Distribution of the intermediate hosts of Bilharziasis in relation to hydrography, with special reference to the Nile basin and the Sudan. Bulletin of WHO, 18: 691 – 734.
30. Malek, E. A. (1962). Bilharziasis control in pump schemes near Khartoum, Sudan and an evaluation of the efficacy of chemical and mechanical barriers. Bulletin of the WHO, 27: 41 – 58.
31. Malek, E. A. (1980). Snail-transmitted infectious disease. CRC press. Boca Ratton, Florida.
32. Mazoub, M. kasim, A. A. and Shawa, Y. R. (1979). Environmental factors and their influence on reproduction and growth of freshwater snails in Saudi Arabia. Journal and Faculty of Science, Riyad University. 10: 97–116.
33. Meyer-Lassen, J. (1992). Studies on snails populations in the Rahad Agricultural scheme, Sudan, with special emphasis on B. truncatus (Audouin) and B. pfeifferi (Krauss) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae), snail intermediate hosts for species of the genus Schistosoma. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Natural Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
34. Saeed, I. E. (1992). studies on the transmission of Schistosomiasis. Facioliasis and Paramphistomiasis in Kosti area, White Nile Province of the Sudan. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Khartoum.
35. Thomas, J. D. and Tait, A. I. (1984). Control of snail hosts of Schistosomiasis by environmental manipulation: A field and laboratory appraisal in the Ibadan area, Nigeria. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 305: 210 – 253.
36. Thomas, J. D.; Gready, B. and Fennell, C. F. (1983). The effect of varying the quantity and quality of various plants on feeding and growth of B. glabrata (Gastropoda). Copenhagen, Oikos, 41: 77 – 90.
37. Van Someren, V. D. (1946). the habits and tolerance ranges of Lymnaea (Radix) cailludi, the intermediate snail host of liver fluke in East Africa. Journal of Animal Ecology, 15: 170 – 197.
38. Vermeij, G. L. and Covich, A. P. (1978). Co-evolution of freshwater gastropods and their predators. The American Naturalist, 112: 833 – 843.
39. Watson, J. M. (1958). The ecology and distribution of B. truncatus in the Middle East. Bulletin of WHO, 18: 833 – 894.
40. Webbe, G. and Masangi, A. S. (1958). Observation of three species of Bulinus on east coast of Africa. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 52: 302 – 314.
41. Webbe, G. (1962). The transmission of S. haematobium in an area of Lake Province, Tanganyika. Bulletin of WHO, 27: 59 – 64.
42. Williams, N. V. and Hunter, P. J. (1968). The distribution of Bulinus and Biomphalaria in Khartoum and Blue Nile Provinces, Sudan. Bulletin of WHO, 39: 949 – 954.
How to Cite
TAHA AHMED, Dr. Mohamed Khalid. Distribution of Snails in Elseilate Agricultural Scheme, Khartoum, Sudan.. Gezira Journal of Health Sciences, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, dec. 2017. ISSN 1810-5386. Available at: <http://journals.uofg.edu.sd/index.php/gjhs/article/view/896>. Date accessed: 11 dec. 2018.