Urine Cytology for Detection of Bladder Carcinoma: Experience of Gezira Hospital for Renal Disease and Surgery(GHRDS)
Background: Urine cytology has been and remains the standard in the initial evaluation of lower urinary tract lesions to rule out bladder cancer.
Objectives: To evaluate the significance of urine cytology as a diagnostic tool for bladder cancer and a to assess the cytological pattern in voided and washed urine.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based study. A total of 43 patients who were suspected to have bladder tumors based on both clinical and radiological findings. Pre-cystoscopy voided urine specimens and post-cystoscopy bladder wash specimens were collected. Three stains were used in preparation of cytological smears Hematoxylin / Eosin, Diff-Quik and May-Grünwald Giemsa, whenever possible equivalent histopathological diagnosis was obtained.
Results: This study included 86 urine cytology specimens obtained from a total of 43 cases of suspected bladder cancer. Muscle invasive cases had the higher percentage (37.2%) with more prominent features of malignancy in cytology than the earliest stages. In 30.2% of voided urine specimens were excellent, while 79.1% of bladder wash specimens had excellent quality with more cellularity and preservation of cells in cytological smears.
Conclusion: Urine cytology is a reliable method in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The quality of washed urine is better than voided urine in cytological results.
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