Comparative Performance of Water User Associations Policy: a Showed Case of Gezira Scheme, Sudan
Gezira scheme (0.88 million hectare) has recently showed a
low level of economical efficiency. The government introduced
the policy or water users' associations (WLJAs) in 2005 to be
responsible for water. management and crop choices. The
objective of this study is to the performance of WUAs in
Gezira Scheme using selected remotely sensed - based indicators.
Images were collected for three seasons 2004/2005, 2005/2006
and 2011/2012, representing the period prior to the WUA, the
start season of the policy and a validation season, respectively.
Based on the Mann - kendall test the cultivated area showed a
significant decreasing trend (P = 0.002) for the last thirty years
with a current cropping intensity of 0.48. The study showed
mixed results, The adoption of WUAs policy resulted in no
significant improvement (P = 0.29) in the monthly overall
consumed ratio, indicating the poor performance of WUAs
policy. The scheme water depletion fraction (DE) was found poor
(less than 1%) throughout the studied seasons due to high
evaporation losses. Relatively, the adoption of WUAs policy
however in the second season is significantly increased (P = 0.0)
the DF from 0.07% to 0. I % because of the improvement in
irrigation adequacy, This improvement was not sustained since
the DF was decreased to 0.05% in the validation season. On the
basis of standardized gross value of production, the WUAs
policy succeeded ill increasing fanners' income by widened crop
choices. The WUAs policy is a good turning point; however its
adoption should be followed by irrigation canal maintenance and
capacity building programs.
management: would it be a turning point in the history of
The Gezira scheme. Irrig Drain 53:429-436.
Ahmed B, Haruya T, Tada A (2010). Application of remote
sensing for estimating crop water requirements, yield
and water productivity of wheat in the Gezira
Scheme. Jnt J Remote Sens 31: 4281- 4294.
Ahmed l, Stigter C, Adam H, Adeeb A (2002). Water - use
efficiency of sorghum and groundnut under traditional and
current irrigation in the Gezira scheme, Sudan. Irrig Sci 21, 115-
Bashier E. Eltigani (2009). Impact of water users associations on
water management in Gezira, Gash and White Nile schemes,
Sudan. PhD thesis, Water Management and Irrigation Institute,
University of Gezira, Sudan.
Bassi N and Kumar D (2011). Can sector reforms improve
efficiency? Insight from irrigation management Transfer in
central India. Int J of Water Resour Dev 27: 709-721.
BastiaanssenW, Thiruvengadachari S, Sakthivadivel R, Molden
D. (1999). Satellite remote sensing for estimating productivities
of land and water. Int J Water Resour Dev 15:181 - 194.
Bos G, Burton A, Molden J (2005). Irrigation and Drainage
Performance Assessment; Practical Guidelines. CABI
Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
EleAgha D, Molden D, Ghanem A (2011). Performance
assessment of irrigation water management in old lands of
the Nile delta of Egypt. Irrig Drain syst. DOI 10.1007/s10795-
Elhag M, Psilovikos A, Manakos I, Perakis K (2011). Application
of the Sebs Water Balance Model in Estimating Daily
Evapotranspiration and Evaporative Fraction from Remote
Sensing Data Over the Nile Delta. Water Resour Manag, 25:
El-magd I, _ Tanton T (2005). Remote sensing and GIS for
estimation of irrigation crop water demand. Int J of Remote Sens
Farah S, saljh A, Taha A, Ali Z, Ali A (1997). Grain sorghum
response to supplementary irrigations under post-rainy
season conditions. J Agric Water Manag 33:31-41.
Guvele C (2002). Gains from crop diversification in the Sudan
Gezira scheme. J Agric Syst 70:319-333.
Hamid F, Yousif G, Mohamed I (1995). Potentials of the Sudan's
irrigated sector in cereals grain production: analysis of various policy options. J Agric Syst 48:457-483.
Karatas B, Akkuzu E, Unal H, Asik S, Avci M (2009). Using
satellite remote sensing to assess irrigation performance in Water
User Associations in the Lower Gediz Basin, Turkey. Agric
Water manag 96:982-990.
Kazbekov J, Abdullaev I, Manthrithilake H, Qureshi A,
Jumaboev K. (2009). Evaluating planning and delivery
performance of Water User Associations (WUAs) in Osh
Province, Kyrgyzstan. Agric Water Manag 96: 1259—1267.
Köksal Y (2008). Evaluation of spectral vegetation indices as an
indicator of crop coefficient and evapotranspiration under full
and deficit irrigation conditions. Int J of Remote Sens 290.7029- 7043.
Molden D, Sakthivadivel R and Habib Z (2011). Basin-level use
and productivity of water: examples from south Asia. Research No (49). IWMI, Sri Lanka.
Geziraj. of eng. & applied . sci. 8 (2) : I - 19 (2013)
Molden D and Sakthivadivel R (1999). Water accounting to assess
and use of water. Int J Water Resour Dev 15:55-71.
Omer A (2005). Agriculture and irrigation water management in the
Sudanese national irrigated schemes. Dissertation, University of
Plusquellec H (1990). The Gezira Irrigated Scheme in Sudan:
Objectives, design and performance. World Bank Technical
Paper No. 120.
Qiao G, Zhao L, Klein K (2009). Water user associations in Inner
Mongolia: Factors that influence farmers to join. Agric Water
Samad M and Vermillion D (1999). An assessment of the impact
of participatory irrigation management in Sri Lanka. Int J Water
Resour Dev 15: 219-240.
Santos C, Lorite I, Tasumi M, Allen R, Fereres E (2005).
Performance assessment of an irrigation scheme using indicators
determined with remote sensing techniques. Irrig Sci 28:461
World Bank (2000). Options for the sustainable development ofthe
Gezira scheme. Report No. 20398-Su.
Yildirim Y and Camak B (2004). Patticipatory irrigation
management in Turkey. Int J Water Resour Dev 20:2, 219-228.
Zwart S and Leclert L (2010). A remote sensing-based irrigation
performance assessment: a case study of the Office du Niger in
Mali. Irrig Sci 28:371-385.
Zwar S and Bastiaanssen (2004). Review of measured crop
water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and
maize. J Agric Water Manag 69: 115-133.